Thursday, December 7, 2017

Our unending sorrow, Quds and Masjid Al-Aqsa

Honorable Believers!
Our Prophet’s (pbuh) wife Maymunah asked him: “O Messenger of Allah! Would you tell us about Baitul Maqdis?” Allah’s Messenger says: “It is the land of the Resurrection and the Gathering. Go and pray there, for one prayer there is like one thousand prayers elsewhere.” When Maymunah asks, “What if I cannot travel and go there, o Messenger of Allah?” the Messenger of Mercy answers: “Then send a gift of oil to light its lamps, for whoever does that is like one who goes there.”[1]
Venerable Muslims!
Imagine a city that was the home to many prophets’ fight for oneness. Imagine a city that was the qibla of three monotheistic religions. Imagine a city that was deemed sacred and blessed with its name and site. That city is Jerusalem, the holy city, also known as Baitul Maqdis. The cradle of civilizations for thousands of years and an attraction center, Jerusalem and its surrounding region witnessed many prophets like Abraham, Ishmael, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Solomon, and Jesus. Masjid al-Aqsa, the first qibla of Islam and the place where our Prophet (pbuh) experience Isra and Mi’raj[2]are also in Jerusalem. Allah’s Messenger wanted us to have a spiritual bond with Baitul Maqdis for that reason. He advised us to perform umrah in that city.[3]
Brothers and Sisters!
Jerusalem achieved peace with the conquest of Caliph Umar. Especially during the Ottoman period, Muslims ruled justly and mercifully, never intervening in the life, property and religious freedom of people from different religions. In fact, non-Muslims sought the justice of Islam in resolving disputes among themselves. The best example of our religion’s vast tolerance and embracing understanding is the inscription on the inner wall of Bab el-Khalil. Our ancestors wrote, “La ilahe ilallah, Ibrahim Halilullah,” which means “There is no god but Allah, Ibrahim is His friend.” Thus, they engraved on the walls of Jerusalem the name of Abraham who is considered a prophet by members of all monotheistic religions.
Honorable Believers!
It should be stated regretfully that Jerusalem, which has been the Darussalam or the center of peace and calm in history, has been in grief for a long time. Masjid al-Aqsa, our first qibla, is wounded. Jerusalem is now far away from being the city of peace after experiencing all kinds of transgressions. The ancient city that has in its every corner the collective traces and memories of humankind now longs for peace. The unity, togetherness, and most sacred values of believers are targeted more and more every day in the land of prophets. Innocent people are murdered in cold blood. Muslims are cruelly and barbarically prevented from worshipping in their own mosques. Friday prayer could not be performed at Masjid al-Aqsa last week for the first time since 1967. It should be remembered that there can be no legal grounds, no religious basis, and no humane reason for shutting down a temple. On those who keep people off their temples and destroy those temples, Allah enjoins the following quite clearly: “Who are more unjust than those who prevent the name of Allah from being mentioned in His mosques and strive toward their destruction? It is not for them to enter them except in fear. For them in this world is disgrace, and they will have in the Hereafter a great punishment.[4]
Honorable Believers!
As our region suffers great pain, the incidents in and around Masjid al-Aqsa have caused tremendous concern for every person with common sense. We believe that the occupation will end at once in this holy land that houses prophets, and reason, moderation, and peace will prevail. It is our greatest wish that common sense comes into action in Jerusalem, the heart of Muslims and the common value of all humankind.
It is a fact that as Muslims there are no embarrassing inhumane practices in our history such as right violations, cruelty, and savagery. However, all the disasters, cruelty, and oppression suffered by our brothers and sisters today teach us a lesson. We must strengthen our brotherhood of faith with the mentality of an Ummah as soon as possible. We must protect the dignity, rights, and gains of one another. Each one of us must work with all our power to make the Ummah of Islam a glorious one again.
Dear Brothers and Sisters!
We as a nation have never broken our spiritual ties with Jerusalem and Masjid al-Aqsa throughout history. We cannot. With that mentality, we open our hands in Friday prayer and supplicate to Allah: O Allah! Make us feel in our hearts the pain of all oppressed brothers and sisters in Jerusalem and around the world! Do not let us side with the short-sighted, the unwise, the heartless, and the cruel! O Allah! Do not allow those who attempt to occupy Masjid al-Aqsa and the cities of Islam! Help our Muslim brothers and sisters so they may overcome the hardships they are going through as soon as possible! Grant us to keep justice alive once again as a glorious Ummah! Answer our prayers on this blessed Friday, o Allah!

[1] Ibn Majah, İkâmetü’s-Salât, 196; Abu Dawud, Salât, 14.
[2] Al-Isra, 17/1.
[3] Abu Dawud, Salât, 14; Ibn Majah, Menâsik, 49.
[4] Al-Baqarah, 2/114.

Written by: General Directorate of Religious Services, 21 July 2017

Tuesday, October 10, 2017


In the Holy Quran, Allah, glory unto Him, vows by the Prophet’s (pbuh) life. Mentioning his great name next to His Own, the Almighty has required belief in his prophethood, as a precondition of being a worthy servant. Allah took offense in others raising their voices in the presence of His Beloved (pbuh), cautioning against calling out his name like any other. What’s more, the Almighty has stated that He and the angels send their numerous blessings, salawat’us-sharifah, to the Prophet (pbuh), ordering his ummah amply do the same.
In accordance with the ayah:
“Allah and His angels send blessings on the Prophet: O Believers! Send your blessings on him and salute him with all respect,” (al-Ahzab, 56) sen
ding salawat’us-sharifah to that Great Being is a duty for all Believers, laid down by Allah, glory unto Him.
Narrating the following is Ubayy ibn Kab (r.a):
“A third of the night had passed when the Messenger of Allah awoke from his sleep and said:
Remember Allah, people, remember Allah! Blown will be the first horn that will rattle the ground. Then will follow the second. Death will arrive with all its intensity; death will arrive with all its intensity…’
‘I send lots of salawat’us-sharifah, Messenger of Allah’, said I. ‘How often should I do it?’
As much as you wish’ he replied.
‘Would it be right if I spared a quarter of my prayer for it?’ I again inquired.
Spare as much from it as you wish’, he advised. ‘But it will be better for you if you spared more.’
‘Then I will spare half’, I proposed.
As you wish…But better if you spared more’, said he.
‘How about I spared two-thirds then?’
As you wish… But better if you spared more’.
‘How would it be then if I send salawat’us-sharifah in the entire time I spare for prayer?’ I then asked.
If you do’, the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) replied, ‘then Allah will rid you of all your troubles and forgive your sins.’” (Tirmidhi, Qiyamat, 23/2457)
Devotees of the Prophet (pbuh), therefore, embrace the salawat’us-sharifah as a continuous chant, for they are means of increasing the love of the Prophet in a Believer’s heart. Appropriately following the Blessed Messenger (pbuh) and making the most of the quintessential example he has provided doubtless comes through a grasp of the reality of the Quran and Sunnah, which in turn is possible only by virtue of drawing closer to the exemplary morals of the Prophet (pbuh), and delving into the depths of his heart.
No mortal has succeeded in describing his essential attribute; his towering morals and disposition has eluded comprehension. The wise, those spiritual sultans, even the great Jibril, have all accepted being on his path as the greatest honor, begging by his door as the most indefinable bliss.
On another note, according to the manners of prayer advised by Islam, all prayers begin and end with thanking Allah, glory unto Him, and sending blessings to the Blessed Prophet (pbuh). There is an established conviction that Allah, glory unto Him, never turns down a salawat’us-sharifah, which, in essence, is a prayer and plea to the Almighty; the precise reason as to why prayers are adorned with it, both in the start and in the end. That is to say, squeezing in personal prayers amid two, whose acceptances are highly expected, is to ensure their acceptance as well.
“A prayer is left hanging between the earth and the skies,” states Omar (r.a) “and is not raised to Allah until blessings are sent to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh).” (Tirmidhi, Witr, 21/486)
Indeed, the Noble Prophet (pbuh) one day happened to see a man who, after salat, was praying without expressing thanks to Allah, glory unto Him, and sending blessings to His Messenger.
The man rushed it”, the Prophet (pbuh) then remarked, before calling him over to give advice:
Upon wishing to make a prayer, one should first thank and praise Allah and send blessings to His Prophet…and then afterward continue in whichever manner desired.” (Tirmidhi, Da’awat, 64/3477)
The importance in prayers of resorting to tawassul, submitting the Prophet’s name (pbuh) as a means, reverberates in the following incident recounted by Ibn Abbas (r.a):
“There was an ongoing war between the Jews of Khaybar and the tribe of Ghatafan, where the Jews were always routed. In the end they prayed:
‘Lord…we ask for victory in the name of the Unlettered Prophet whose appearance in the Final Epoch you have avowed’, after which they defeated Ghatafan. Yet, once Allah, glory unto Him, did make appear the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) whose name they appealed in their prayer, the Jews rejected his prophethood and the book revealed to him; whereupon Allah proclaimed:
‘And when there came to them a Book from Allah verifying that which they have, and aforetime they used to pray for victory against those who disbelieve, but when there came to them (Prophet) that which they did not recognize, they disbelieved in him; so Allah’s curse is on the unbelievers.’” (al-Baqara, 89)(Qurtubi, II, 27; Wahidi, p. 31)
Evident is thus the fact even non-Believers were able to make use of the mercy and abundance that permeated the universe with the coming of the Prophet of Mercy (pbuh), owing to his splendid honor in Divine Sight.
Addressing the Prophet (pbuh), Allah assures:
“But Allah will not punish them while you are with them, nor will He punish them while they seek forgiveness.” (al-Anfal, 33)
This Divine assurance was also revealed with regard to non-Believers. Since even they are given such a privilege, simply owing to their physical proximity to the Blessed Prophet (pbuh), the blessings awaiting Believers is simply inconceivable; especially provided they not only affirm faith in the Exceptional Being, but moreover receive a share of his love as the core of their faith. Words, here, are powerless…Beyond a shadow of a doubt, the extent of happiness in the world and the greatness of ranks in the Hereafter are to the degree of depth a Believer lets his heart immerse in the love of the Prophet (pbuh).
Therefore do not forget sending your blessings and peace to him…for you too stand in need of his intercession in the darkest of hours!

Sunday, August 27, 2017

Ahl’ul-Bayt and the Love of Ahl’ul-Bayt

Ahl’ul-Bayt denotes the members of a family living under the same roof. In the technical sense, it covers the entire members of the Blessed Prophet’s family, as well as his extended family; hence the families of, first and foremost, the Prophet of Allah (s.a.s), and then of Ali, Jafar, Aqil and Abbas.
Just as praying for and sending greetings (salat’u salam) to the Noble Prophet (s.a.s) is a duty for all Muslims, so is respecting and adhering to the Ahl’ul-Bayt with love. It is impermissible for the Ahl’ul-Bayt to receive alms (zakat). Seeing on one occasion the little Hasan (r.a) take a piece of date from the pile reserved for zakat in the Treasury to his mouth, the Blessed Prophet (s.a.s) quickly made him spit it out and said:
“Don’t you know that Muhammad’s family does not receive zakat?” (Bukhari, Zakat, 57; Ahmad, I, 200)
Recounting the following is Zayd in Arqam (r.a): “One day, by the Hum Creek between Mecca and Medina, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.s) stood and gave us a talk. After praising and glorifying Allah, he gave us some advice, which he followed up by saying:
‘People…! I, too, am but a man. Soon the messenger of my Lord will come and I will accept his invitation and leave. I leave you two important things. One of them is the light and guide that takes one to the truth, which is the Quran. Stick to it and do not let go!’
He then gave some advice regarding holding fast to the Quran and adhering to it. He then continued with the words:
‘And I leave you my Ahl’ul-Bayt. Fear Allah and show them respect! Fear Allah and show them respect!’”
Zayd ibn Arqam (r.a) was then asked as to who exactly Ahl’ul-Bayt was and whether or not the Prophet’s (s.a.s) wives were also included.
“His wives are also included”, replied Zayd.
“But his real Ahl’ulBayt are those for whom alms are impermissible even after the Messenger of Allah (s.a.s).”
“And who are those?”
“They are the families of Ali, Aqil, Jafar and Abbas.” (Muslim, Fadail’us-Sahabah, 36)
The Blessed Prophet (s.a.s) has stated:
“Love Allah for having showered you with His blessings. Love me for the love of Allah. And love my Ahl’ul-Bayt for the sake of my love!” (Tirmidhi, Manaqib, 31/3789)
Again, one day holding his dear grandchildren Hasan and Husayn by the hand, the Blessed Prophet declared:
“Whoever loves me, them and their parents shall be in my company on the Day of Judgment.” (Tirmidhi, Manaqib, 20/3733)
The Companions had great love and respect for the family and relatives of the Blessed Prophet (s.a.s).
Naturally, one nurtures feelings of affection not only for the beloved but, to the extent of the love felt, also for his or her friends and moreover every little thing that helps remind of the beloved, like the clothes worn, foods eaten, and so forth. The deeper the love grows, the deeper it permeates everything that surrounds the beloved. The Companions would let their love bursting forth from the depths of their hearts for the Blessed Prophet (s.a.s) show with various acts, like holding the stirrups of a horse or a camel a relative of the Blessed Prophet (s.a.s) was to mount.
Profoundly conscious that on the Day of Judgment all other ties of blood would be severed except for the bond one had with the Blessed Prophet (s.a.s), they were eager to marry one of his relatives to reinforce their bond of love with a bondship of kin.
The descendants of the Noble Messenger (s.a.s) today survive in various parts throughout the Muslim world. The term Sayyid is used in reference to those to have descended through the line of Husayn (s.a.s), and Sharif for the descendants of Hasan (r.a).
The Ottomans referred to sayyids as amir, and the turban they wrapped around their heads as amir turbans. Women of the Noble Prophet’s (s.a.s) lineage would also carry a green mark on their hijabs. Serving the Ahl’ul-Bayt was considered by the Ottomans a duty, to the point where they even found an official institution for the purpose.
Officials exclusively entrusted with the duty of seeing to this service were called naqib’ul-ashraf, also chosen from among the members of the Ahl’ul-Bayt. Among the various aspects of their needs the naqib’ul-ashraf dealt with included registering their lineage, births and deaths included, preventing them from entering any old profession, distributing among them their share of taxes and spoils and precluding their women from marrying men not their equal.
Being successors of the children of the Blessed Prophet (s.a.s) and owing to the honor of the duty they carried out, the naqib’ul-ashraf were given the one of the highest official ranks, second behind the Caliph in protocol. The naqib’ul-ashraf would be the first to officially pledge allegiance to the sultan upon his ascension to the throne and pray for his wellbeing, only after which the remainder of the protocol would follow.
Priority of congratulation during eids also belonged to the naqib’ul-ashraf, for whom the sultan would rise to greet during the proceedings of both eids. A sayyid or a sharif found guilty of committing a crime or acting in an unacceptable manner would be dealt with by the naqib’ulashraf, if in Istanbul, or by the official head of a district, if elsewhere.
Before the actual punishment, the official would remove the green turban from their heads and kiss it; and eventually restoring it once the punishment came to an end.

Osman Nuri Topbaş

Tuesday, April 11, 2017


“Light upon Light.” (Qur’an, al-Nur, 24/35)

The lifestyle of the Prophet (peace be upon him) is the best example for each and every human being. He is the best example of a religious leader. He is the finest example of a state leader. He is the example to follow for those who ente the garden of divine love. He is the highest example of gratitude and humility for those who are showered with the gifts of God. He is the greatest example of patience and submission, in the most challenging times and places. He is the best example of generosity and of disinterest in collecting bounty. He is the finest example of compassion towards the family. His is the greatest example of mercy towards the weak, the lonely and the enslaved, and he is exemplary in pardoning the guilty.
I yo ar wealthy contemplat th humilit and generosity of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), who gained the hearts of the leaders who controlled all of Arabia!
If you are weak, adopt the example of the Prophet (peace be upon him) during the period he spent in Mecca under the rule of the oppressive and usurping polytheists.
If you are a triumphant conqueror, take your example from the life of the courageous Prophet (peace be upon him) who defeated his enemies in Badr and Hunayn.
If you lose a battle, may Allah protect you; remember
the example of the Prophet (peace be upon him) who walked with dignity, courage and reliance on Allah among his martyred and wounded companions after the battle of Uhud.
If you are a teacher, contemplate the example of the Prophet (peace be upon him) who taught God’s orders by conveying his soft and sensitive enlightenment to the people of Suffa (Ashab al-Suffa) in the school at his Mosque.
If you are a student, bring to mind the example of the Prophet (peace be upon him) who sat on his knees before the Archangel, the Trustworthy Gabriel (Jibril al-Amin).
If you are a preacher or a sincere spiritual guide (murshid) for people, listen to the voice of the Prophet (peace be upon him), who spread wisdom to his companions.
If you aim to defend the truth, to convey it to others and lift it up, yet have no helper in this matter, then look at the life of the Prophet (peace be upon him), who proclaimed the truth in Mecca against the oppressors while inviting them to it.
I yo hav defeate you enemies broke their resistance and triumphed over them, if you have destroyed the superstitions and declared the truth, then bring to your min the example of the Prophet (peace be upon him) on the day he conquered Mecca. He entered this holy city as a triumphant  commander, yet with great humility, sitting on his camel as if he were in the state of sajdah; that is prostration before God, as an expression of gratitude to Allah.
If you are a farmer, take your example from the Prophet
(peace be upon him), who, after conquering the lands of Bani Nadr, Khyabar and Fadak, chose skilled people to develop and manage these lands in the most productive way.

If you are lonely, with no relatives, bring to mind the example of the orphan of Abdullah and Aminah, their most beloved and only innocent son.
If you are an adolescent, pay attention to the life of the Prophet (peace be upon him) who, as a young man and candidate for prophethood, served in Mecca as a shepherd, tending the sheep of his uncle Abu Talib.
If you are a businessman and travel for trade, think about the experiences of the Most Honored Person, Muhammad (peace be upon him) while leading the caravan from Mecca to Busra in Syria.
If you are a judge or a referee, bring to mind his justice and foresight when he solved the conflict among the tribes of Mecca over who should have the prestige of putting back the Black Stone (Hagar al-Aswad), as they were on the verge of killing each other.
Again, turn your eyes to history and consider the example of the Prophet (peace be upon him) as he, in his masjid in Medina, treated equally the poor in distress and the wealthy, and as he judged between them with utmost fairness.
If you are a husband, look carefully at the pure life style, the compassion and the deep feelings of the Prophet (peace be upon him) as an exemplary husband. If you are a parent, learn about the example of the father of Fatimah al-Zahra, and study the manner of the grandfather of Hasan and
Regardless of your qualities and the state in which you
find yourself, day or night, you will find him as the most perfect role model, teacher and guide.
He is so perfect a teacher that by following his example you can correct all your mistakes, eliminate chaos from your life and bring order to your life. Through his light and guidance, you can overcome the difficulties of life and attain real happiness.
As a matter of fact, his life is a bouquet composed of the most rare and elegant flowers and roses with the finest of fragrances.

Tuesday, March 21, 2017

Human Rights in the Prophetic Sunna

The Sunnah is the second primary source of legislation after the Holy Qur’an. It clarifies the major behavioural features of the individual and the society as well.

This is the first and opening article to a series of articles investigating and highlighting the various issues of human rights in the Prophetic Sunnah: the life of Muhammad (pbuh), the last Prophet and the Messanger of Allah to all humans.
Before explaining the status of Sunnah in Islamic legislation and its impact on the life of Muslims at all times, I want to say that I have chosen this particular aspect of human rights in Islam to discuss for two reasons. The first has to do with some calls today to leave the Sunnah behind and hold to the Qura'n in first place. For those who send such call, their claim is to dismiss the allegation of contradiction between the Qur'an and Sunnah; an allegation that can be easily defeated away from the path they have chosen. My other reason is to contribute to the global campaign to defend Muhammad (pbuh) using the little knowledge I have acquired so far.
 The Prophetic Sunnah is all that the Prophet said, did, or approved which can be used as evidence for a legal rule. Muslims (the followers of the four madhabs (Schools of Law) had consensus among them that the Sunnah has the legal status of wajib (compulsory). In this respect Allah says in the following ayah that translates:
{Say [O Muhammad!]: “Obey Allah and the Messenger [Muhammad] (3:32)
{And whatsoever the Messenger [Muhammad] gives you, take it, and whatever he forbids you, abstain [from it]}(59:7)
{These are the limits [set by Allah] [or ordainments as regards laws of inheritance], and whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger [Muhammad] will be admitted to Gardens under which rivers flow [in Paradise], to abide therein, and that will be the great success. And whosoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger [Muhammad] and transgresses His limits, He will cast him into the Fire, to abide therein, and he shall have a disgraceful torment}(4:13-14)

For those who claim the contradiction between the Qur'an and Sunnah, we say that concerning human rights in the Prophetic sayings, all aspects of human rights in the Sunnah complement and clarify the conceptual framework of human rights in the Qur’an.

The Sunnah is the second primary source of legislation after the Holy Qur’an. It clarifies the major behavioural features of the individual and the society as well.The Sunnah may support and emphasise what was revealed in the Qur’an as is the case of forbidding shirk (associating something else with Allah), and giving false testimony. The Sunnah may also explain what was revealed in the Qur’an as is in the case in specifying the number of rak'at (prostrations) in prayers and the specified shares of zakat. Muslim prominent scholars are unanimous on the fact that the majority of the legal provisions and ethical guidance of the common daily Muslim life behaviours have no source save the Sunnah. Therefore, the Muslim nation has agreed in consensus that the Sunnah is the second source of legislation without which the explanatory part vanishes from both the Islamic Shari'ah and from the behaviour of the individual and the society as well. Therefore, the Prophet’s sayings and doings from be'tha (beginning of the message of Islam) till his death constitute a part of the documentary stage for human rights in Islam.

There is no contradiction in Islam at all. This fact is evident even to the non Muslims. The components of Islam are integrated, comprehensive, and compatible with each other.

For those who claim the contradiction between the Qur'an and Sunnah, we say that concerning human rights in the Prophetic sayings, all aspects of human rights in the Sunnah complement and clarify the conceptual framework of human rights in the Qur’an.Furthermore, the life of the Prophet and his deeds were the best manifestation of these rights. It was narrated that A’ishah, the Prophet’s wife, was once asked about his morals and she briefly answered by saying: “He was a manifestation of the Qur’an” (Cited in two places in Imam Ahmad’s Musnad). Allah described His Messenger before that saying in an ayah that translates:
{You [O Muhammad] are on an exalted [standard of character] character}(68:4)
In a study conducted about human rights in the Prophetic sayings in Sahih Al-Bukhari who died in 256 AH (his book is at the top of the list of the best documented books of records of hadithdue to the strict conditions he established for accepting the hadith,and the rules he employed in criticizing their texts and the methods of narration)on the economic, social, and political rights. The researcher says that although a complete image of human rights in Islam cannot be obtained unless we make a comprehensive review of this topic in all sources of legislation in Islam, human rights in Islam as indicated by the Prophetic sayings cited in Al-Bukhari represent the clear, integrated and convincing image of these rights just like the drop of blood taken from a body to be tested in a medical lab. This drop, although tiny, represents and reflects the whole body from which it was taken. Similarly, the Prophetic sayings cited in Al-Bukhari represent the entire attitude of Islam regarding human rights. They complement what was stated in the other sources about human rights in order to clarify the true image of the Islam. The more we go about this minimised image, the more we emphasise and clarify it. We will never find any defect that may distort or devaluate this image. There is no contradiction in Islam at all. This fact is evident even to the non Muslims. The components of Islam are integrated, comprehensive, and compatible with each other. They are realistic and ideal in the social, religious, economic aspects, and all other walks of life pertaining to this world and the Hereafter (Mahmud, Husni. Beirut 2002).
Each of the following articles will be allocated to a specific "right" to discuss in light if the Prophetic Sunnah. The right to life will be on the top of the list of rights followed by other rights. I do not belittle other rights doing so; I am, nevertheless, emphasizing the importance of the basic right a human should have to be able to enjoy other rights. 

Thursday, November 10, 2016

Miracles of the Last Prophet

M.Sadık Hamidi - Elif Eryarsoy Aydın

THE HOLY QURAN : Verses of Revelation and High Rhetoric

The Holy Quran is neither poetry, nor a work of prose with rhymes. It is on it's own as an unprecedented and divine text. For this reason, the Arabs were awestruck by the Quran since such a written work was unprecedented; they were left with no other choice but to claim that the Quran was magic.
To date, poets and men of letters have been amazed by the verses and the meanings in the Quran and are left without recourse, unable to utter a single word equivalent to one single verse of the Quran. It is concise and to the point, and its rhetoric does not resemble that of any person. If a single word were to be removed or added, the perfection of the eloquence of the Quran would be destroyed.
There are two elements to the conciseness of the Holy Quran, both of which rely on revelation: its verse and its meaning.
The most apparent evidence of the miraculous status of the Quran is its lofty rhetoric. Allah defies all the masters of rhetoric in His divine book in such a way that this challenge encompasses all times and places and no one is able to utter a word that is equivalent to that of the Holy Quran. Those who have attempted to do so have always failed. As this has not been done until now, it must be impossible to do so at any time. (The verses which prove the statements of this issue are Al-Baqarah 23-24, Al-Isra 88, Al-Hud 13-14, Al-Yunus, 38)
It should be noted that the rhetorical challenge of the Quran was directed towards those who had the utmost eloquence in the Arabic language.

The Prophet Muhammad was illiterate

Our Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) could neither read nor write. The fact that tales of preceding prophets and events in societies and people far from his milieu were depicted accurately in the Quran is thus nothing less than a miracle.
The Quraishis knew that Muhammad was illiterate. How could he possibly have learned the historical accounts and incidents related to previous societies and prophets? This had to be divine revelation itself.
"And thou wast not (able) to recite a Book before this (Book came), nor art thou (able) to transcribe it with thy right hand: In that case, indeed, would the talkers of vanities have doubted." (Al-Ankabut, 48)
Prophet Muhammad not only spoke of incidents related to previous prophets and societies, but he also informed people of incidents that were to happen in the future.
The most important of these incidents occurred when Muhammad informed the people that the fire-worshipping Persians, who had defeated the Byzantines, would be defeated in a short period of time and that the Byzantine State would become triumphant. At that time such a thing was considered a remote possibility; however, incidents turned out as Allah had foretold in the Quran and in less than ten years the Byzantines were triumphant over the Persians:
"Alif Lam Mim. The Roman Empire has been defeated- In a land close by; but they, (even) after (this) defeat of theirs, will soon be victorious- Within a few years. With Allah is the Decision, in the past and in the Future: on that Day shall the Believers rejoice- With the help of Allah. He helps whom He will, and He is exalted in might, most merciful. " (Ar-Rum, 1-5)

Allah announced that His Prophet would conquer Mecca

According to an account, before heading to Hudaybiyah, the Prophet (pbuh) had a dream in which he and his Companions shaved their heads and entered Mecca in victory; later he told his Companions about this dream. They were very pleased when they heard this. Finally they set out on the campaign to Hudaybiyah, but after an initial defeat, they returned in disappointment. Some hypocrites also started to spread negative rumor about the incident.  In response to this, Allah informed people on the conquest to come by reference to the conquest of Khaybar a year ago.
"Truly did Allah fulfill the vision for His Messenger. Ye shall enter the Sacred Mosque, if Allah wills, with minds secure, heads shaved, hair cut short, and without fear. For He knew what ye knew not, and He granted, besides this, a speedy victory."(Al-Fath, 27 )

Many religious beliefs, practices and moral issues that were unknown to the Arabs are described in the Quran.

The Arabs were unaware of the tenets of monotheism, the need to believe in angels, prophesies, the Day of Judgment, Heaven and Hell in return for worldly deeds and provisions related to laws, halal and haram, the codes of conduct for ensuring human happiness, the spirit of brotherhood and helping one another, justice and fear of Allah, or their duties towards their families and society. The Prophet would read the revelations related to these rules, essential to the lives of humans, and would convey them to society. He was illiterate. He knew neither jurisprudence, sociology, psychology nor had he acquired education on subjects related to philosophy, ethics and prophesies. That he counseled on such matters proved that his prophethood was revealed unto him alone from the divine treasure.

Many verses of the Quran encompass intellectual truths.

Even this century scientists have been amazed by the fact that the Quran contains depictions of the universe, sky, earth, stars, planets, the formation of night and day, the physical, mental and spiritual phases of the creation of human beings, explanations and descriptions related to plants, animals and insects, as well as comprehensive and clear explanations of everything that exists within the universe, such as clouds, rain, storms, mountains, trees, rivers and seas. When the Quran was revealed, people did not possess such knowledge and for a long time they were unable to perceive the truth of these descriptions. However, as science developed throughout this and the last century, people have managed to understand the truths stated in the Quran.
Although fourteen centuries have passed since the revelation of the Quran, no discrepancy, error or corruption has been observed in its doctrines, meanings or issues.
The Quran constitutes a unity, not only in terms of diction, but also in terms of meaning and judgments. The words of human beings are not always the same in terms of elegance or accuracy. These words change in accordance with the mood of the writer or the speaker, or according to the conditions in which they occur. However, the diction and style of the Quran has an unprecedented beauty and accuracy from beginning to end. Although the meanings, judgments and messages of these words mention almost everything in the universe, from genesis to eternity, they show an absolute consistency, correctness and harmony. If one just finds these points and contemplates on them this is enough to understand that the Quran is not a manmade book, but that it was sent by Allah.
"Do they not consider the Quran (with care)? Had it been from other than Allah, they would surely have found therein much discrepancy.(An-Nisaa, 82).

There are many aspects of conciseness in the Quran and they can be summarized in general under these two headings:

  1. The Quran is addressed to all people: the fact that 1, 400 years ago the Quran mentioned events that had not been heard of before, that these events occurred just as depicted in the Quran, that it mentions ancient tribes, and that it presents a general but unique legal system which can be applied to all people in all places at all times is a miracle; remember that Prophet Muhammad was illiterate and could not read or write. It is known that Prophet Muhammad did not take any lessons from scholars or tutors and he did not study law or politics. In view of this, it would be impossible for such an illiterate person to have formed this unique legal system by himself; it is a system that has divine wisdom inherent in it and is presented in the most wonderful Arabian rhetoric and coherence. Thus, the conciseness and miraculousness of the Holy Quran is without a doubt.
  2. The conciseness of the Quran is addressed to the Arabs: The divine language of the Quran is unique. The Quran has a rhetoric and coherence which is attention-grabbing, mesmerizing and superior.
Although the Quran, which has a unique style and a wide and deep treasure of meaning, has been read repeatedly for centuries, the Arab masters of rhetoric and coherence have not been able to write a similar text to date.  

The miracle of splitting the moon into two parts

This great miracle of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is mentioned in the Quran: "The Hour (of Judgment) is nigh, and the moon is cleft asunder.(Al-Qamar, 1). In addition to this, Abdullah ibn Mas'ud reported that Prophet Muhammad split the moon.
According to some hadiths (sayings of Prophet), a group of polytheists asked Prophet Muhammad to split the moon into two to prove his prophethood. He turned to Allah and requested that this miracle occur. The moon was immediately split into two by the power and with the permission of Allah. One part was seen on Mount Hira, and the other part was seen right in front of the Prophet.

The Miraj

The Miraj is another of the great miracles of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). In Surat Al-Isra and Al-Najm, the Prophet's miraculous night journey to Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa and his ascension to Sidrat Al-Muntaha (the last boundary where the knowledge of creations ends and beyond which no one can pass) are mentioned.
In the first verse of Surat Al-Isra, the Prophet's miraculous journey is mentioned in the following words:
"Glory to ((Allah)) Who did take His servant for a Journey by night from the Sacred Mosque to the farthest Mosque, whose precincts We did bless,- in order that We might show him some of Our Signs: for He is the One Who heareth and seeth (all things).(Al-Isra, 1).
The Messenger of Allah was brought to Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa (in Jerusalem) from Mecca in a matter of seconds. Ibn Kathir states that at least twenty-five people from the Companions told accounts of the incidence of the Miraj, and this number could be as great as forty-five. According to information in 26 hadiths, while Prophet Muhammad was sleeping in the house of his cousin Ummuhani bint Abu Taleb, Gabriel came and took him to the Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa on an animal called Buraq. There are many details in hadiths about what the Prophet saw during the Miraj.
Some of the information in the Quran is about the ascension of Prophet Muhammad to the Sidrat al-Muntaha:
"For indeed he saw him at a second descent, Near the Lote-tree beyond which none may pass: Near it is the Garden of Abode. Behold, the Lote-tree was shrouded (in mystery unspeakable!)  (His) sight never swerved, nor did it go wrong! For truly did he see, of the Signs of his Lord, the Greatest!  (An-Najm, 13-18).

The protection of the last Prophet

Like all the other prophets, the truths conveyed to people by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) led him to become subject to various torments and slander and he had to face much cynicism. Many different slanders were directed towards him and he lived under oppression and the threats of death from non-believers for many years.
Despite all these difficulties, the fact that Prophet Muhammad continued his struggle without coming to any physical harm is one of his most important miracles. This was promised in the following verse; "And Allah will defend thee from men (who mean mischief." (Al-Maida, 67)
Allah always protected the Prophet and he continued to convey his mission until the very end. This amazing truth exists both in the Quran and in the hadiths related to the words of the Prophet. (His protection from the polytheists inside the cave, the non-believers' failure to kill Him, the illusion that the Islamic armies consisted of much greater numbers during battles...)

The acceptance of the Prophet's prayers

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) revealed many miracles to his companions. One of these miracles is the fact that his prayers were accepted by Allah. There are many accounts in the hadiths related to this issue. Among these are the prayers he said in order to change the qiblah (the direction of prayer), the acceptance of his prayer for rain, and the fact that his prayers were realized when he prayed for a companion.


Water flowing from the Prophet's fingers

We are told by the companions that water flowed and gushed through Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)'s fingers. Abdullah ibn Masud said the following: "While we regard these amazing aspects of his as a bounty, you consider him to be frightening. Once we were beside the Prophet and we had only a little water left. He said, ‘Find me some water.' They found a bucket in which there was hardly any water. He put his hands into the water and commanded as follows: ‘Come to the sacred water, fertility comes from Allah.' I saw the water gushing through the fingers of the Prophet." (Fathul-Bari, 3579)

Jabir's meal

Jabir ibn Abdullah said: "When the trench (during the Battle of the Trenches) was dug, I saw that the Prophet was extremely hungry. So I returned to my wife and asked, "Have you got anything to eat?" We had a domestic animal which I then slaughtered, and my wife ground the barley and finished around the time I finished my task.
Then I cut the meat into pieces and put it in an earthenware cooking pot, and returned to the Prophet. I went to him and said to him, "O Allah's Prophet! I have slaughtered an animal of ours, and we had some barley bread. So please come, you and another person along with you." The Prophet announced, "Let us go." The Prophet said to me, "Don't remove your earthenware meat pot from the fireplace or bake your dough until I come." So I went home and the Prophet came too, leading other people. He said: "Keep on taking out scoops from your earthenware pot, and do not remove it from the fireplace." They were one thousand people who ate with us, and by Allah they all ate, and when they left, our earthenware pot was still bubbling full of meat as if it had not decreased any, and our bread was still being baked as if nothing had been taken from it. (Bukhâri, 4/90, 5/138; Muslim: 13/216)

Umm Sulaym's Jar

An account by Anas's mother states: "We had a sheep. I would collect the buttermilk from it and put it into an earthenware jar. Eventually the jar was filled. I gave the jar to Zaynab, my servant, and told her to take it to the Prophet for him to eat."
The girl took the jar to the Prophet and the jar was returned after being emptied into another container. The girl brought the jar back to house. She hung the jar on the wall because Umm Sulaym was not at home. When Umm Sulaym returned home, she realized that the jar was hanging and it was full of buttermilk and it was dripping on the floor. She said to servant girl: "I told you to take this jar to the Prophet!" The girl answered: "I took the jar to the Prophet. If you don't believe me, than let's go to his home together."
Umm Sulaym went to the Prophet's home with the servant girl and said to him: "O Prophet; I sent you a jar full of butter with this girl." The Prophet answered: "Yes, the girl brought the jar."
Umm Sulaym said, puzzled: "I swear by Allah Who sent you as a prophet with His Religion and Mercy that the jar was filled with butter when it was returned. It was even overflowing." In response to this Prophet Muhammad said: "Are you surprisedAllah feeds you as He feeds His prophet." (Bukhâri, 4/251 - 5/62; Muslim, 17/145; Ahmad b. Hanbal's Musned: 5/204)
Throughout history, people have requested miracles from the messengers that had been sent to them to help them to believe. Allah supported some prophets with miracles and enabled them to perform these miracles.
The miracles of the last Prophet were also the results of Allah's assistance and grace. Miracles are proofs that strengthen the faith of the believers and which invite the nonbelievers to faith.


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